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References for Epidural Steroid Injection

1. Frymoyer JW, Catsbaril WL. An overview of the incidences and costs of low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 1991;22:263–271.

2. Weinstein SD, Herring SA, Derby R. Contemporary spine care. Epidural steroid injections. Spine. 1995;20:1842–1846.

3. Bigos SJ, Bowyer O, Braen G. Acute Low Back Problem in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14. AHCPR Publication No. 95-0642. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy; 1994.

4. Kang JD, Geogescu HI, McIntyre-Larkin L, et al. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disc spontaneously produce matrix metalloproteases, nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2. Spine. 1996;21:92.

5. Byrod G, Rydevik B, Nordborg C, et al. Early effects of nucleus pulposus application on spinal nerve root morphology and function. Eur Spine J. 1998;7:445–449.

6. Olmarker K, Nordborg C, Larsson K, et al. Ultrastructural changes in spinal nerve roots induced by autologous nucleus pulposus. Spine. 1996;15(21):411–414.

7. Kawakami M, Weinstein JN, Spratt K, et al. Experimental lumbar radiculopathy: immunohistochemical and quantitative demonstrations of pain induced by lumbar nerve root irritation of the rat. Spine. 1994;19:1780–1794.

8. Byrod G, Otani K, Brisby H, et al. Methylprednisolone reduces the early vascular permeability increase in spinal nerve roots induced by epidural nucleus pulposus application. J Orthop Res. 2000;18(6):983–987.

9. Saal JS, Franson RC, Dobrow R. High levels of inflammatory phospholipase A2 activity in lumbar disc herniations. Spine. 1990;15(7): 674–678.

10. Olmarker K, Rydevik B, Nordborg C. Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots. Spine. 1993;18:1425–1432.

11. Olmarker K, Larsson K. Tumor necrosis factor[alpha] and nucleuspulposus- induced nerve root injury. Spine. 1998;23:2538–2544.

12. Olmarker K, Rydevik B. Selective inhibition of TNF-[alpha] prevents the nucleus pulposus-induced reduction of nerve conduction velocity. Presented at 27th International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Adelaide, April 9–13, 2000.

13. Olmarker K, Rydevik B, Holm S. Edema formation in spinal nerve roots induced by experimental, graded compression. Spine. 1989;14: 569–573.

14. Takahashi H, Suguro T, Okazima Y, et al. Inflammatory cytokines in the herniated disc of the lumbar spine. Spine. 1996;21:218–224. 14a. Igarashi T, Kikuchi S, Shubayev V, et al. Exogenous tumor necrosis factor- alpha mimics nucleus pulposus-induced neuropathology. Molecular, histologic, and behavioral comparisons in rats. Spine. 2000;25:2975– 2980.

15. Ma C, Greenquist KW, Lamotte RH. Inflammatory mediators enhance the excitability of chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95(4):2098–2107.

16. Kirita T, Takebayashi T, Mizuno S, et al. Electrophysiologic changes in dorsal root ganglion neurons and behavioral changes in a lumbar radiculopathy model. Spine. 2007;32(2):E65–E72.

17. Mulleman D, Mammou S, Griffoul I, et al. Pathophysiology of diskrelated sciatica. I. Evidence supporting a chemical component. Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme. 2006;73(2):151–158.

18. Finckh A, Zufferey P, Schurch M-A, et al. Short-term efficacy of intravenous pulse glucocorticoids in acute discogenic sciatica. A randomized controlled trial. Spine. 2006;31(4):377–381.

19. Dyck PJ, Norell JE, Dyck PJ. Methylprednisolone may improve lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001;28(3): 189–190.

20. Raynor RB, Saint-Louis L. Postoperative gas bubble foot drop. A case report. Spine. 1999;24(3):299–301.

21. Stitik TP, Nadler SF, Foye PM. Salon sink radiculopathy: a case series. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;78(4):381–383.

22. Pasqualucci A, Varrassi G, Braschi A. Epidural local anesthetic plus corticosteroid for the treatment of cervical brachial radicular pain: single injection versus continuous infusion: randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2007;23(7):551–557.

23. Dryer SJ, Dreyfuss P. Injection therapy. In: Rucker K, Cole AT, Weinstein SM, eds. Low Back Pain: A Symptom-Based Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Boston, MA: Butterworth Heinemann; 2001:247–268.

24. Johansson A, Hao J, Sjolund B. Local corticosteroid application blocks transmission in normal nociceptive C-fibres. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1990;34(5):335–338.

25. Dryer SJ, Dreyfuss P, Windsor RE. Injection procedures. In: Cole AT, Herring SA, eds. The Low Back Pain Handbook. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus; 1997:227–243.

26. Woodward JL, Herring SA, Windsor RE. Epidural procedures in spine pain. In: Lennard TA, ed. Pain Procedures in Clinical Practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus; 2000:341–376.

27. Kraemer J, Ludwig J, Bickert U, et al. Lumbar epidural perineural injection: a new technique. Eur Spine J. 1997;6(5):357–361.

28. Cannon DT, Aprill CN. Lumbosacral epidural steroid injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81:S87–S99.

29. Waldman SD. Lumbar epidural nerve block. In: Waldman SD, ed. Interventional Pain Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2001:415–422.

30. Abdi S, Datta S, Trescot AM, et al. Epidural steroids in the management of chronic spinal pain: a systematic review. Pain Physician. 2007;10: 185–212.

31. Ackerman WE III, Ahmad M. The efficacy of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with lumbar disc herniations. Anesth Analg. 2007;104(5):1217–1222.

32. Manchikanti L. Transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections. Pain Physician. 2000;3(4):374–398.

33. Glaser SE, Falco F. Paraplegia following a thoracolumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection. Pain Physician. 2005;8(3):309–314.

34. Huntoon MA, Martin DP. Paralysis after transforaminal epidural injection and previous spinal surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29(5): 494–495.

35. Manchikanti L. Cervical epidural steroid injection with intrinsic spinal cord damage. Spine. 1999;24(11):1170–1172.

36. Hopwood MB, Abram SE. Factors associated with failure of lumbar epidural steroids. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1993;18(4):238–243.

37. Fanciullo GJ, Hanscom B, Seville J, et al. An observational study of the frequency and pattern of use of epidural steroid injection in 25,479 patients with spinal and radicular pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26(1):5–11.

38. Olmarker K, Byrod G, Cornefjord M, et al. Effects of methylprednisolone on nucleus pulposus-induced nerve root injury. Spine. 1994;19:1803–1180.

39. Cyteval C, Fescquet N, Thomas E, et al. Predictive factors of efficacy of periradicular corticosteroid injections for lumbar radiculopathy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(5):978–982.

40. Ng L, Chaudhary N, Sell P. The efficacy of corticosteroids in periradicular infiltration for chronic radicular pain: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Spine. 2005;30(8):857–862.

41. Dreyfuss P, Baker R, Bogduk N. Comparative effectiveness of cervical transforaminal injections with particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroid preparations for cervical radicular pain. Pain Med. 2006;7(3): 237–242.

42. Haddox JD. Lumbar and cervical epidural steroid therapy. Anesthesiol Clin N Am. 1992;10:179–203.

43. Renfrew DL, Moore TE, Kathol MH. Correct placement of epidural steroid injections: fluoroscopic guidance and contrast administration. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991;12(5):1003–1007.

44. Sullivan WJ, Willick SE, Chira-Adisai W, et al. Incidence of intravascular uptake in lumbar spinal injection procedures. Spine. 2000;25(4): 481–486.

45. Thomas E, Cyteval C, Abiad L, et al. Efficacy of transforaminal versus interspinous corticosteroid injection in discal radiculalgia—a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Clin Rheumatol. 2003; 22(4–5):299–304.

46. Kwon JW, Lee JW, Kim SH, et al. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection for neck pain and cervical radiculopathy: effect and prognostic factors. Skeletal Radiol. 2007;36(5):431–436.

47. Stojanovic MP, Vu TN, Caneris O, et al. The role of fluoroscopy in cervical epidural steroid injections: an analysis of contrast dispersal patterns. Spine. 2002;27:509–514.

48. Johnson BA, Schellhas KP, Pollei SR. Epidurography and therapeutic epidural injections: technical considerations and experience with 5334 cases. Am J Neuroradiol. 1999;20:697–705.

49. McLain RF, Kapural L, Mekhail NA. Epidural steroid therapy for back and leg pain: mechanisms of action and efficacy. Spine J. 2005;5(2):191–201.

50. Vad VB, Bhat AL, Lutz GE, et al. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections in lumbosacral radiculopathy: a prospective randomized study. Spine. 2002;27(1):11–16.

51. Bowman SJ, Wedderburn L, Whaley A, et al. Outcome assessment after epidural corticosteroid injection for low back pain and sciatica. Spine. 1993;18:1345–1350.

52. Watts RW, Silagy CA. A meta-analysis on the efficacy of epidural corticosteroids in the treatment of sciatica. Anesth Intensive Care. 1995;23:564–569.

53. Abram SE, Hoopwood MB. What factors contribute to outcome with lumbar epidural steroids. In: Bond MR, Charlton JE, Wolf CJ, eds. Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Pain. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1991:491–496.

54. Manchikanti L, Bakhit CE, Pakanati RR, et al. Fluoroscopy is medically necessary for the performance of epidural steroids. Anesth Analg. 1999;89(5):1330–1331.

55. Saal JS, Saal JA, Yurth EF. Nonoperative management of herniated cervical intervertebral disc with radiculopathy. Spine. 1996;21(16): 1877–1883.

56. Carette S, Leclaire R, Marcoux S, et al. Epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica due to herniated nucleus pulposus. N Engl J Med. 1997;336;23:1634–1640.

57. Arden NK, Price C, Reading I, et al. WEST Study Group. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica: the WEST study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44: 1399–1406.

58. Friedly J, Nishio I, Bishop MJ, et al. The relationship between repeated epidural steroid injections and subsequent opioid use and lumbar surgery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(6):1011–1015.

59. Kolstad F, Leivseth G, Nygaard OP. Transforaminal steroid injections in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a prospective outcome study. Acta Neurochir. 2005;147(10):1065–1070; discussion 1070.

60. Anderberg L, Annertz M, Persson L, et al. Transforaminal steroid injections for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a prospective and randomised study. Eur Spine J. 2007;16(3):321–328.

61. Davis R, Emmons SE. Benefits of epidural methylprednisolone in a unilateral lumbar discectomy. J Spinal Disord. 1990;3:299–307.

62. DePalma MJ, Bhargava A, Slipman CW. A critical appraisal of the evidence for selective nerve root injection in the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(7):1477–1483.

63. McLain RF, Kapural L, Mekhail NA. Epidural steroid therapy for back and leg pain: mechanisms of action and efficacy. Spine J. 2005;5(2): 191–201.

64. Kapural L, Mekhail N, Bena J. Value of the magnetic resonance imaging in patients with painful lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) undergoing lumbar epidural steroid injections. Clin J Pain. 2007;23(7):571–575.

65. Botwin K, Brown LA, Fishman M, et al. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injections in degenerative lumbar spine stenosis. Pain Physician. 2007;10(4):547–558.

66. Saal JS, Saal JA, Yurth EF. Nonoperative management of herniated cervical intervertebral disc with radiculopathy. Spine. 1996;21(16): 1877–1883.

67. Bush K, Hillier S. Outcome of cervical radiculopathy treated with periradicular/ epidural corticosteroid injections: a prospective study with independent clinical review. Eur Spine J. 1996;5(5):319–325.

68. Slipman CW, Lipetz JS, Jackson HB, et al. Therapeutic selective nerve root block in the nonsurgical treatment of atraumatic cervical spondylotic radicular pain: a retrospective analysis with independent clinical review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(6):741–746.

69. Saal JA, Herzog RJ, Saal JS. The natural history of lumbar disc extrusions treated nonoperatively. Spine. 1990;15:683–686.

70. Becker C, Heidersdorf S, Drewlo S, et al. Efficacy of epidural perineural injections with autologous conditioned serum for lumbar radicular compression: an investigator-initiated, prospective, double-blind, referencecontrolled study. Spine. 2007;32(17):1803–1808.

71. Olmarker K, Rydevik B. Selective inhibition of tumor necrosis factoralpha prevents nucleus pulposus-induced thrombus formation, intraneural edema, and reduction of nerve conduction velocity: possible implications for future pharmacologic treatment strategies of sciatica. Spine. 2001;26:863–869.

72. Karppinen J, Korhonen T, Malmivaara A, et al. Tumor necrosis factoralpha monoclonal antibody, infliximab, used to manage severe sciatica. Spine. 2003;28:750–753.

73. Genevay S, Stingelin S, Gabay C. Efficacy of etanercept in the treatment of acute and severe sciatica: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63:1120–1123.

74. Korhonen T, Karppinen J, Paimela L, et al. The treatment of disc herniation-induced sciatica with infliximab: results of a randomized, controlled, 3-month follow-up study. Spine. 2005;30:2742–2748.

75. Korhonen T, Karppinen J, Paimela L, et al. The treatment of discherniation- induced sciatica with infliximab: one-year follow-up results of FIRST II, a randomized controlled trial. Spine. 2006;31(24): 2759–2766.

76. Stalcup ST, Crall TS, Gilula L, et al. Influence of needle-tip position on the incidence of immediate complications in 2,217 selective lumbar nerve root blocks. Spine J. 2006;6(2):170–176.

77. van Akkerveeken PF. The diagnostic value of nerve root sheath infiltration. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1993;251:61–63.

78. Dooley JF, McBroom RJ, Taguchi T, et al. Nerve root infiltration in the diagnosis of radicular pain. Spine. 1994;19:1125–1131.

79. Stanley D, McLaren MI, Euinton HA, et al. A prospective study of nerve root infiltration in the diagnosis of sciatica: a comparison with radiculography, computed tomography, and operative findings. Spine. 1990;6:540–543.

80. Nordmann DK, Macadaeg K, Sasso RC. Selective nerve root injections can predict surgical outcome for lumbar and cervical radiculopathy: a retrospective review with comparison to MRI. Program and Abstracts of the 16th Annual North American Spine Society, October 31 to November 3, 2001, Seattle, WA. Abstract 39B.

81. Haselkorn JK, Rapp S, Ciol MA, et al. Epidural steroid injections and the management of sciatica: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995;76:1037(abst).

82. Botwin KP, Gruber RD, Bouchlas CG, et al. Complications of fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar epidural injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(8):1045–1050.

83. Botwin KP, Gruber RD, Bouchlas CG, et al. Complications of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;80(6):416–424.

84. Lauria G, Chiapparini L, Pareyson D, et al. Spinal cord lesion due to epidural anesthesia [Letter]. Neurol Sci. 2000;21(6):411–412.

85. Pounder D, Elliott S. An awake patient may not detect spinal cord puncture [Letter; comment]. Anaesthesia. 2000;55(2):194.

86. Manchikanti L. Cervical epidural steroid injection with intrinsic spinal cord damage. Spine. 1999;24(11):1170–1172.

87. Hodges SD, Castleberg RL, Miller T, et al. Cervical epidural steroid injection with intrinsic spinal cord damage: two case reports. Spine. 1998;23(19):2137–2142; discussion 2141–2142.

88. Derby R, Lee SH, Date ES, et al. Size and aggregation of corticosteroids used for epidural injections. Pain Med. 2008;9(2):227–234.

89. Dreyfuss P, Baker R, Bogduk N. Comparative effectiveness of cervical transforaminal injections with particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroid preparations for cervical radicular pain. Pain Med. 2006;7(3):237–242.

90. Knight CL, Burnell JC. Systemic side-effects of extradural steroids. Anaesthesia. 1980;35(6):593–594.

91. Anderberg L, Annertz M, Rydholm U, et al. Selective diagnostic nerve root block for the evaluation of radicular pain in the multilevel degenerated cervical spine. Eur Spine J. 2006;15(6):794–801.

92. Vassiliev D. Spread of contrast during L4 and L5 nerve root infiltration under fluoroscopic guidance. Pain Physician. 2007;10(3):461–466.

93. Anderberg L, Saveland H, Annertz M. Distribution patterns of transforaminal injections in the cervical spine evaluated by multi-slice computed tomography [Journal Article]. Eur Spine J. 2006;15(10):1465–1471.

94. Newton W, Curtis P, Witt P, et al. Prevalence of subtypes of low back pain in a defined population. J Fam Pract. 1997;45(4):331–335.

95. Manchikanti L, Boswell MV, Singh V, et al. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2004;5:15.

96. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, et al. Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity? Spine. 1994;19:1132–1137.

97. Manchikanti L, Manchukonda R, Pampati V, et al. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic low back pain in postsurgical patients by controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88:449–455.

98. Schwarzer AC, Wang S, Bogduk N, et al. The prevalence and clinical features of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain: a study in an Australian population with chronic low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis. 1995;54: 100–106.

99. Barnsley L, Lord SM, Wallis BJ, et al. The prevalence of chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash. Spine. 1995;20:20–26.

100. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N. The utility of comparative local anaesthetic blocks versus placebo-controlled blocks for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophysial joint pain. Clin J Pain. 1995;11:208–213.

101. Bogduk N. Back pain: zygapophyseal joint block and epidurals. In: Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO, eds. Neural Blockage in Clinical Anesthesia and Pain Management. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1996:935–954.

102. Bogduk N. The clinical anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami. Spine. 1982;7(4):319–330.

103. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain in whiplash injury. Spine State Art Rev. 1998;12:301–322.

104. Dreyfuss P, Tibiletti C, Dreyer SJ. Thoracic zygapophyseal joint pain patterns. A study in normal volunteers. Spine. 1994;19:807–811.

105. Chua WH, Bogduk N. The surgical anatomy of thoracic facet denervation. Acta Neurochir. 1995;136(3–4):140–144.

106. Ashton IK, Ashton BA, Gibson SJ, et al. Morphological basis for back pain: the demonstration of nerve fibers and neuropeptides in the lumbar facet joint and loading on group II, III and IV afferent units from the lumbar facet joint and surrounding tissue. An in vitro study. J Bone Joint Surg. 1992;74:1464–1471.

107. Beaman DN, Graziano GP, Glover RA, et al. Substance P innervation of lumbar spine facet joints. Spine. 1993;18(8):1044–1049.

108. Ahmed M, Bjurholm A, Kreicbergs A, et al. Sensory and autonomic innervation of the facet joint in the rat lumbar spine. Spine. 1993;18(14):2121–2126.

109. Tachihara H, Kikuchi S, Konno S, et al. Does facet joint inflammation induce radiculopathy? Spine. 2007;32:406–412.

110. Twomey LT, Taylor JR, Taylor MM. Unsuspected damage of lumbar zygapophyseal (facet) joints after motor-vehicle accidents. Med J Aust. 1989;151:210.

111. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, et al. Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Is the lumbar facet syndrome a clinical entity? Spine. 1994;19:1132–1137.

112. Schwarzer AC, Derby R, Aprill CN, et al. Pain from the lumbar zygapophysial joints: a test of two models. J Spinal Disord. 1994;7:331–336.

113. Schwarzer AC, Scott AM, Wang S, et al. The role of bone scintigraphy in chronic low back pain: comparison of SPECT and planar images and zygapophysial joint injection. Aust N Z J Med. 1992;22:185(abst).

114. Schwarzer AC, Wang S, O’Driscoll D, et al. The ability of computed tomography to identify a painful zygapophysial joint in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 1995;20:907–912.

115. Sehgal N, Dunbar EE, Shah RV, et al. Systematic review of diagnostic utility of facet (zygapophysial) joint injections in chronic spinal pain: an update. Pain Physician. 2007;10:213–228.

116. Dreyfuss PH, Dreyer SJ. Lumbar zygapophyseal (facet) joint injections. Spine J. 2003;3:50S–59S.

117. Dreyer SJ, Dreyfuss P, Cole A. Zygapophyseal (facet) joint injections: intraarticular and medial branch block techniques. Phys Med Rehabil Clin North Am. 1995;6:75–742.

118. Kaplan M, Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, et al. The ability of lumbar medial branch blocks to anesthetize the zygapophysial joint. A physiologic challenge. Spine. 1998;23(17):1847–1852.

119. Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Medial branch blocks are specific for the diagnosis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Reg Anesth. 1993;18(6):343–350.

120. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, et al. The false-positive rate of uncontrolled diagnostic blocks of the lumbar zygapophysial joints. Pain. 1994;58:195–200.

121. Barnsley L, Lord SM, Walis BJ, et al. False positive rates of cervical zygapophyseal joint blocks. Clin J Pain. 1993;9:124–130.

122. Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N. Comparative local anaesthetic blocks in the diagnosis of cervical zygapophysial joints pain. Pain. 1993;55: 99–106.

123. Speldewinde GC, Bashford GM, Davidson IR. Diagnostic cervical zygapophyseal joint blocks for chronic cervical pain. Med J Aust. 2001;174(4):174–176.

124. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, et al. The relative contributions of the disc and zygapophyseal joint in chronic low back pain. Spine. 1994;19(7):801–806.

125. Bogduk N. The anatomical basis for spinal pain syndromes. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995;18(9):603–605.

126. Schwarzer AC, Derby R, Aprill CN, et al. The value of the provocation response in lumbar zygapophyseal joint injections. Clin J Pain. 1994;10(4):309–313.

127. Carette S, Marcoux S, Truchon R, et al. A controlled trial of corticosteroid injections into facet joints for chronic low back pain [Randomized controlled trial]. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(14):1002–1007.

128. Slipman CW, Lipetz JS, Plastaras CT, et al. Therapeutic zygapophyseal joint injections for headaches emanating from the C2-3 joint. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;80(3):182–188.

129. Boswell MV, Colson JD, Sehgal N, et al. A systematic review of therapeutic facet joint interventions in chronic spinal pain. Pain Physician. 2007;10:229–253.

130. Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Pauza K, et al. Efficacy and validity of radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic lumbar zygapophysial joint pain. Spine. 2000;25:1270–1277.

131. van Kleef M, Barendse GA, Kessels A, et al. Randomized trial of radiofrequency lumbar facet denervation for chronic low back pain [Randomized controlled trial]. Spine. 1999;24(18):1937–1942.

132. Leclaire R, Fortin L, Lambert R, et al. Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain. Spine. 2001;13:1411–1416.

133. Diamant D. Diagnosing zygapophysial joint-mediated pain is more effectively done via comparative anesthetic (and saline placebo) blocks and exacting and demanding process [Comment, letter]. Spine. 2001;27(3):328–329.

134. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, et al. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1721–1726.

135. Lord SM, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy of the cervical medial branches: a validated treatment for cervical zygapophysial joint pain. Neurosurg Q. 1998;8:288–308.

136. McDonald GJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain. Neurosurgery. 1999;45(1):61–67; discussion 67–68.

137. Thomson SJ, Lomax DM, Collett BJ. Chemical meningism after lumbar facet joint block with local anaesthetic and steroids. Anaesthesia. 1991;46:563–564.

138. Cook NJ, Hanrahan P, Song S. Paraspinal abscess following facet joint injection. Clin Rheumatol. 1999;18(1):52–53.

139. Barnsley L, Lord SM, Wallis BJ, et al. Lack of effect of intraarticular corticosteroids for chronic pain in the cervical zygapophyseal joints [Randomized controlled trial]. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(15):1047–1050.

140. Lord SM, Bogduk N. Treatment of chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain (author’s reply). N Engl J Med. 1997;336(21):1530–1531.

141. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Bogduk M. The sacroiliac joint in chronic low back pain. Spine. 1995;20:31–37.

142. Maigne J-Y, Aivaliklis A, Pfefer F. Results of sacroiliac joint double block and value of sacroiliac pain provocation tests in 54 patients with low back pain. Spine. 1996;21:1889–1892.

143. Dreyfuss P, Michaelsen M, Pauza K, et al. The value of medical history and physical examination in diagnosing sacroiliac joint pain. Spine. 1996;21:2594–2602.

144. Damen L, Buyruk HM, Guler-Uysal F, et al. Pelvic pain during pregnancy is associated with asymmetric laxity of the sacroiliac joints. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001;80(11):1019–1024.

145. Fortin JD, Aprill CN, Ponthieux B, et al. Sacroiliac joint: pain referral maps upon applying a new injection/arthrography technique. II. Clinical evaluation. Spine. 1994;19:1483–1489.

146. Fortin JD, Dwyer AP, West S, et al. Sacroiliac joint: pain referral maps upon applying a new injection/arthrography technique. I. Asymptomatic volunteers. Spine. 1994;19(13):1475–1482.

147. Fortin JD, Kissling RO, O’Connor BL, et al. Sacroiliac joint innervation and pain. Am J Orthop. 1999;28(12):687–690.

148. Sakamoto N, Yamashita T, Takebayashi T, et al. An electrophysiologic study of mechanoreceptors in the sacroiliac joint and adjacent tissues. Spine. 2001;26(20):E468–E471.

149. Fortin J, Aprill CN, Dwyer A, et al. Sacroiliac joint: pain referral maps. Spine. 1994;19:1475–1482.

150. Laslett M, Williams M. The reliability of selected provocation tests for sacroiliac joint pathology. Spine. 1994;19:1243–1249.

151. Walker JM. The sacroiliac joint: a critical review. Phys Ther. 1992; 72:903–916.

152. Slipman CW, Jackson HB, Lipetz JS, et al. Sacroiliac joint pain referral zones. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(3):334–338.

153. Yildiz A, Gungor F, Tuncer T, et al. The evaluation of sacroiliitis using 99mTc-nanocolloid and 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy. Nucl Med Commun. 2001;22(7):785–794.

154. Prather H. Sacroiliac joint pain: practical management. Clin J Sports Med. 2003;13(4):252–255.

155. Zelle BA, Gruen GS, Brown S, et al. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction evaluation and management. Clin J Pain. 2005;12(5):446–455.

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